Mainstreaming of Populism, Ethno-Nationalism and Authoritarianism in 21st Century Party Politics

Under Review

By Sakeef M. Karim and Martin Lukk


The rise of the far right is often linked to major events from the past decade, including the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election, the referendum on Brexit, and the formation of right-wing governments in countries like India, Brazil, and Italy. Yet a focus on these recent, high-profile events fails to contextualize the far right’s ascendance as a long-term phenomenon involving both (1) the emergence and legitimation of insurgent far right parties and (2) the adoption of far right ideas, positions and discursive frames by parties in the political mainstream. Using principal component analysis and data on political parties around the world, we highlight this latter process by visualizing how three prominent mainstream parties in Turkey, Hungary and the United States shifted towards populism, ethno-nationalism and authoritarianism—the core constitutive elements of radical-right politics—in the early 21st century, becoming indistinguishable from established far right parties as a result.

Posted on:
October 1, 2022
1 minute read, 146 words
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